Characteristics of Fair-Minded Thinkers:

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Characteristics of Fair-Minded Thinkers:

  1. Intellectual autonomy
  2. Intellectual courage
  3. Intellectual empathy
  4. Intellectual humility
  5. Intellectual integrity
  6. Intellectual perseverance
  7. Intellectual sense of justice
  8. Intellectual confidence in reason

select one quality from above that you feel you possess and describe how you embody this quality.

Next, select two qualities from above that you feel you need to improve upon.

Using the five step decision making process outlined below, create a plan of action to improve in those areas. Please be sure to outline the specific steps you’ll take to overcome any obstacles you face.

Your completed assignment should be written primarily in first person. If you use sources in your writing, be sure to identify them. If you use any direct language from a source, be sure to place those words in quotation marks.

Decision Making Process

  • Step One: As clearly as possible, define the decision you are faced with.
  • Step Two: Consider each possible choice you have for resolving the issue.
  • Step Three: Gather as much relevant information as time allows, and identify the pros and cons of each of the choices you have to solve your issue.
  • Step Four: Based on your list of pros and cons, choose the best method for resolving the issue.
  • Step Five: Construct a plan of action to implement your method (be sure to leave yourself enough flexibility to make adjustments as necessary).

Sample paper: Professional Interview Analysis

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Professional Interview Analysis

Stduent Name

Liberty University



This interview is with a special education teacher who faces many unique challenges. She is charged with the task of educating, but also facilitating growth at a much more humble rate, and in many different ways, than other educators. The interview revealed several themes related to foundations of leadership, ciritical issues, and effective practices.

Keywords: inclusion, special education, co-teaching


Prior to becoming a special education teacher, Amy, a name provided in order for the subject to remain confidential, grew up in a single parent home in Phoenix, Arizona. Despite growing up with a single mom, Amy felt a sense of permanency as she lived in the same house from the time she was three until she had finished high school. She was active in her elementary school and attended the same school through the eighth grade. One of Amy’s elementary school teachers became a coach and a mentor to her during her formative years. While she was in high school, this same teacher moved to the high school to teach. Amy felt this relationship with her teacher/mentor reassured her through a difficult adolescent time and this reassured her that she always had someone that she could trust and and talk to if needed. This mutual understanding between teacher and student helped inspire her to become a special education teacher. Amy majored in psychology at Arizona State University and also attained licensure in special education as well.

With an inherently pragmatist perspective in education philosophy, Amy leads her classroom with a Deweyian sense of democracy and community. Amy takes a purposeful  Montessorian approach to each of her students as she views the individual as being exceptional, unique, and possessive of the ability to learn especially when given the right types of intervention. Amy’s personal, holistic commitment to the student as a whole not only resounds of her Montessorian perspective, but also can be theoretically linked to the progressive ideas of John Dewey that students are individuals and learn according to their own rate of change and progress (Gutek, 2011). As a means of educating the whole student, Amy recognizes the benefits of inclusion and relates its future success within the school community to the effective practice of co-teaching. The subsequent advantages that are commensurate to this practice help to create continued professional development, sponsor mentoring relationships, and foster collaborative consensus. Each advantage of this practice contributes to the ideals of teacher efficacy envisioned by Horace Mann.

With the philosophical undertones of pragmatism, the collaborative perspectives of Montessori and John Dewey, Amy’s teaching reflects the type of classroom environment that continues to grow and develop the intellect of each individual student. Whild doing so, she holds herself accountable as a professional with a duty not only to her students, but also to her surrounding community.

Foundations of Leadership

As a special education teacher, Amy believes that education philosophy is constantly changing and that perspectives often change over the course of years while being a teacher. When she first began teaching, Amy knew about inclusion as a theory but did not yet quite have the experience to see it in practice. After 7 years of teaching in a high school setting with low-income students, most of whom are affiliated with some type of gang, Amy feels that it is part of her duty everyday to make sure that her students feel that they are in a safe environment in her classroom. Fostering a democratic spirit of community, ideas are to be expressed in a respectful way, and her students must leave their differences at the door and learn from one another. Amy wants her students to feel that at least in her classroom, they have the opportunity to be the best student that they can on that day, in that moment. Amy places emphasis on the fact that her students recognize that they are different from their peers and do not learn in the same ways as general education students. As a result, many of her students feel labeled as being “dumb” and become very passive and apathetic about learning (A. Smith, personal communication, 2016). In an effort to confront this attitude, Amy strongly believes that her students are taught the same subjects as general education students. Her students may receive shortened assignments or she may have them complete the assignments as a class, but they do complete the same work as their general education counterparts. In this way, Amy feels this allows her students to be able to relate to their peers within the school environment.

In response to the particular philosophy or education philosopher that strongly influenced her as a teacher, Amy conveyed her foundational beliefs similar to those of Maria Montessori. As a special education teacher, Amy positions her classroom around the central idea that all children are exceptional. Montessori championed this same notion beginning her career working with special needs students (Gutek, 2011). Montessorian educators are trained to perceive all children as exceptional and in equal response, individualized, flexible, and differentiated learning are of utmost importance (Cossentino, 2010). Montessori’s commitment to the holistic and responsive types of support needed to carefully match the needs of the student with the instruction given are in direct correlation to the stipulations found in current early intervention models and corresponding instructional models (Cossentino, 2010). In Amy’s classroom, she fosters a type of independence in her students similar to the Montessori approach that is built upon encouraging the “divine urge” which stimulates growth through self-action (Gutek, 2011, p. 401). As a special education teacher, Amy noted just how much her students need her involvement, but with her decreased level of intervention, her students learn to perform their work more independently. In turn, similar to Montessori philosophy, there is derived in her students a greater feeling of self-accomplishment and satisfaction that comes from work completed or a task well done. As a result, the feelings that surface from her students’ various forms of independence produce higher self-esteem (Gutek, 2011).

Although Amy did not comment on any religious views or a specific worldview that has impacted her view of education, she did illustrate a pragmatist perspective reflective of John Dewey. As a teacher and former student of psychology, Amy could not directly assign to herself a religious background or worldview perspective as she feels that such views are part of a rapidly changing world. Her perspective of such views are reflective of pragmatism in that they are tentative at best, pluralistic in nature, and are left for openness subject only to the experience of reality (Gutek, 2011). The characteristics that she sees are the most important part of an educator’s repertoire are those that, according to pragmatist philosophy, allow for a great degree of probability in the classroom. For example, most of Amy’s students have been identified through testing as learning disabled, but to Amy, this quantitative knowledge about each of her students is probable rather than certain. While such tests do provide some direction and even present possible remedial actions, they only provide generalizations that often result in failure to capture changing individuality and most importantly, experience. To Amy, and pragmatists in general, intellectual testing primarily appeals to the aristocratic tradition that “intelligence is a ready-made possession of individuals” (Danforth, 2008, p. 58). In turn, this indeterminate system also creates, according to Amy and pragmatists in general, some of the most critical issues that currently face educators.

Criatical Issues

From the perspective of special education, Amy posits three critical issues that currently amass within education today. The constraint of intellectual disability, quantitative testing, and a resulting negative attitude that permeates within her students combine to create a prolonged, although outdated sense that students with learning disabilities have very little room to progress or change. In response to these issues, Amy’s model of classroom community can and does imply a model for institutional change as well as provide a glimmer of light to the current most critical issue in special education: racial disproportionality (A. Smith, personal communication, 2016).

            Revealing his philosophy of education through the structure of democratic processes, John Dewey titled his work, Democracy and Education. In it, he expressed his belief that the power and potential to grow is present where life exists (Danforth, 2008). As a special education teacher, Amy recognizes the constraint that an intellectual disability places on her students. Although this is the case, Amy in true pragmatist spirit, does not view her students as lacking the potential to grow and change over time (Danforth, 2008). To her, an intellectual disability does not freeze growth or learning, as has been the tendency to address this issue in the past. Although expansions are quite humble for her students in comparison to other general education students, Amy liberates herself from past models of perceived learning stagnation and supports each of her students by recognizing and nurturing the gift that he or she is personally endowed. In agreement with John Dewey, Amy sees it as a critical issue in education to aggregate instances of failed learning into a complete picture of inability that ultimately denies the potential and reality of actual growth (Danforth, 2008). Further, Amy classifies the current reliance on quantitative performance criteria as being problematic, especially to her students. Sadly, she feels that many of her students’ futures are predicted and contstrained squelching the growth of their own individual and dynamic capacities. This is most similar to John Dewey’s perspective of education as a means of fulfilling a democratic ethic to all individuals. In this regard, Dewey’s critical view of intelligence testing equates to Amy’s objections in that it is merely a welcome procedure with which to sink the individual within a class based on a numerical scale, thereby limiting the individual to certain vocations, rank, and a predestined order (Danforth, 2008). For Amy, this leads to a third most critical issue.

Amy’s students know that they are different. In fact, Amy’s interview narrative relays that her students not only recognize their inability to learn at the same rate as do their peers, but that they also feel that this pattern of growth recasts them as inferior. In a sense, Amy’s students feel that in addition to a learning disability, they also feel defined as failing to be the person that they should be. In an effort to combat this invasisve attitude, Amy leads her classroom as a communal unit. A pragmatist at heart, Amy approaches these problems with a progressivist viewpoint recognizing that any sort of progress for her students is implied change (Gutek, 2011). Her class celebrates the successful completion of a task by a fellow student as a family. The success of one is celebrated by all members. Dewey’s notion of democracy is preserved in this sense and a sort of dialectic, constructive relation is born between the individual and the social organization which is in this case, the school (Danforth, 2008). According to Amy, these critical issues conglomerate into one overarching problem that will continue to become a troubling development within special education: racial disproportionality.

In Amy’s classroom, her students are mainly comprised of Hispanic and African American ethnicity. There are currently three students who would identify themselves as Caucasian. The term of intellectual disability employed within the categorical scheme operative in the U.S. currently is a label that is part of a daily reality for at least six hundred thousand public school students (Danforth, 2008). When diagnosed, there are doors opened that compel a great deal of substantial financial and personnel resources toward the individual student as well as the activation of a legal apparatus that serves to protect the right to instruction specifically designed according to the individual’s academic and social abilities (Danforth, 2008). However, Amy’s classroom also clearly demonstrates a disparate representation. This pragmatic evaluation alludes to both achievement and problems within the current system of special education. Although Amy’s classroom model does not eliminate the growing racial disproportionality in special education, it does serve as a small step to a potential glimpse at institutional change. Applying Dewey’s democratic education, Amy recognizes that a school can move toward a democratic ideal where individual members not only can experience satisfaction, but can also achieve a filial sense of achievement and values (Danforth, 2008). As a result, the growth and learning of one student is understood as having value amongst the group as a whole (Gutek, 2011). A school that promotes democratic community increases the interaction between students with and without disabilities and the progress of one has worth to the others.

Effective Practices

In order to provide the best education possible for all students, Amy’s school implements three successful practices that have cohesively fostered a high-quality education in the strategy for supporting inclusion within her school. Under repeated efforts to include students who have disabilities in general education, the practice of co-teaching continues to be implemented in schools (Pugach & Winn, 2011). Working in unision with one another, each practice in Amy’s school builds upon the other in order to create a sense of shared responsibility for a group of students. Co-teaching, for Amy, has been one of these successful practices that her institution uses in order to facilitate inclusion, a sense of community, as well as further mentoring roles for novice teachers. As a result of co-teaching, the effective practice of inclusion is promoted in conjunction with the potential to ameliorate teacher burnout, provding novice teachers with a mentor.

The term inclusion is often seen as a challenge to many school districts. There is rarely a universally accepted definition or even a narrowly defined policy that exists at the federal level (DeMatthews & Mawhinney, 2013). Inclusion is a word not specifically outlined in IDEA (Individuals with Disabilities Act) and is also not delineated within case law. What does give rise to the legal impetus that coincides with inclusion is the language that constitutes the least restrictive environment component of IDEA (DeMatthews & Mawhinney, 2013). A student’s Individualized Education Program (IEP) addresses what will be the least restrictive environment in order to preserve individual learning goals, attain the appropriate services for that goal, and where the student will receive those services (DeMatthews & Mawhinney, 2013). There is a preference for inclusion in IDEA in which students remain part of the general education classroom; however, IEP teams (consisting of parents, teachers, the student, and service providers) have the ability to determine the extent of inclusion. In consequence, there is no mandate of full inclusion and the courts create additional leeway for school districts to regulate the degree of inclusion on a case by case basis (DeMatthews & Mawhinney, 2013).

Co-teaching, or the shared responsibility of a general education and special education teacher within the same classroom, is a strategy implemented by schools to support inclusion (Pugach & Winn, 2011). True to her pragmatist philosophical style, Amy regards co-teaching as a means to encourage a student-centered classroom where both teachers act as helpers and guides to the path of learning (Gutek, 2011). Further, inclusion is akin to Horace Mann’s concept of a socially integrated organization that was also a vehicle to create a social, racial, and academically integrated society (Gutek, 2011). Reflecting Mann’s integrationist themes, inclusion supports Mann’s common school philosophy in that it provides the same skills and knowledge equally to all students (Gutek, 2011). Consistent with Mann’s philosophical goals, public schools create communal integration when wholly supportive of inclusion. In order to achieve this level of inclusion, the co-teaching method creates a sense of shared responsibility, accountability, and resources conducive to support all students’ learning (Pugach & Winn, 2011). Amy’s school system implemented a fairly atypical strategy of co-teaching which has also served to create a stronger sense of community amongst general education and special education teachers. In this model, an interdisciplinary team is responsible for a group of students for a period of two years. This team comprised of a special education teacher and content teachers serves as the first point of reference for parents while they also collectively develop curriculum, plan interventions, and monitor student progress. In this way, this co-teaching approach creates an environment of inclusion, but it also lessens the degree of marginalization that special education novice teachers often feel when entering the field. This method establishes the effective practice that focuses on assimilating special eduation teachers into the general education community. They are no longer as isolated from their professional cohorts and experience integration with their colleagues. This degree of teacher preparation also rests on the concept of Horace Mann in that teachers must not only be experts in their level of knowledge and skill, but also be adept at classroom management, while striving to be part of a profession marked by consensual collaboration (Gutek, 2011). Mentoring is a form of direct support that emerges as a part of the team, and it is a practice that Amy feels is critical in helping future special educators become effective practictioners.

According to Andrews and Brown (2015), the average special education teachers work in the classroom for only a total of six years. Attrition rates are generally higher than those of general education teachers, and it is of particular note that many special education teachers experience compassion fatige which causes them to devalue their work and lose motivation to teach (Andrews & Brown, 2015). This issue is one that Amy contributes to the common mistakes found within special education that provide inadequate professional support/mentoring, a lack of integration of special education teachers into the school community, and the inability to meet standards while also meeting student’s needs. Perfectly situated within Mann’s vision of consensus leadership, co-teaching provides a method to address these mistakes and perhaps eventually prevent teacher burnout. Despite different interests, general education and special education teachers have the opportunity to unite for a common cause, improve instruction, and professionalize teachers (Gutek, 2011).




















Andrews, A., & Brown, J. L. (2015). Discrepancies in the ideal percpetions and the current experiences of special education teachers. Journal of Education and Training Studies, 3(6), 126-131. doi:10.11114/jets.v3i6.984

Cossentino, J. (2010). Following all the children: Early intervention and Montessori.

Montessori Life, 22(4), 38-45.

Danforth, S. (2008). John Dewey’s contributions to an educational philosophy of intellectual        disability. Educational Theory, 58(1), 45-62.

DeMatthews, D. C., & Mawhinney, H. (2013). Addressing the inclusion imperative: An urban     school district’s response. Education Policy Analysis Archives, 21(61), 509-526.

Gutek, G. L. (2011). Historical and philosophical foundations of education: A biographical         introduction (5th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.

Pugach, M. C., & Winn, J. A. (2011). Research on co-teaching and teaming. Journal of Special    Education Leadership, 24(1), 36-46.


You will conduct an interview and write a case study analyzing the interviewee’s beliefs on education in the context of the theories and thinkers covered in the course.

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Professional Interview Analysis Instructions


Assignment Description

You will conduct an interview and write a case study analyzing the interviewee’s beliefs on education in the context of the theories and thinkers covered in the course. The final document must be 2,500–3,000 words; include a title page, abstract, and reference page; and use current APA format. You must include 4 scholarly sources.


Specific Guidelines

You will be asked to analyze the statements of another educator in the context of the thinkers covered in this course. Seek out a person of interest and schedule an interview early in the course.

  • Identify the person to be interviewed. This person may be a teacher, administrator, or other educational professional working in K–12 or in a higher education environment. The person may not be related to you. Be candid with the person about your task. You will not use real names in your report.
  • You must use the first 3 sets of questions (items A–C below), although you may add to or modify them to fit your interview. Use sections A–C (Foundations of Leadership, Critical Issues, Effective Practices) as first-level headings for your paper. You may ask follow-up questions to probe more deeply if you need more detailed responses to better inform your paper.
  • Keep in mind that you want to have enough substantive material to write your paper. In the case that a participant cannot identify the philosophical basis of his/her practice as an educator, the recommended approach includes asking questions about practitioner issues in order to understand how he/she approaches problems and real-to-life situations. This will provide you with material for a substantial analysis.
  • During the interview:
    • Record the interview if you are able. If not recorded, you must take detailed
    • Be aware of your own bias as you interview. Be sure you are not taking any statements for granted. Question assumptions on your part.
  • Writing the Analysis

o   This assignment is designed to introduce you to real case study analysis.

o   Write the case using pseudonyms. Be sure to begin your paper by providing the reader with a description of the subject’s role/context, background of your analysis, and your conclusions.

o   Avoid the overuse of direct quotations by summarizing or paraphrasing the participant’s responses.


o   Each major heading must contain a brief summary of the participant’s comments along with a thorough analysis. Your analysis is really an examination of the participant’s statements in light of your knowledge of philosophical perspectives in education. This is not merely a summary of the interview; it must be an analysis of the subject’s remarks to the interview questions. Be sure to include specific citations and references to the various people, concepts, and resources addressed in the course textbooks. You are trying to place your subject on the continuum of beliefs. Feel free to be critical.

o   Your analysis must include proper citation of at least 4 references.

o   You are being assessed on your ability to summarize and critically think about the subject’s statements, your knowledge of leadership theories and practices, and your writing style (spelling, grammar, punctuation, and current APA format, etc.).


Interview Questions/Outline:


  1. Foundations Of Leadership (required)

1.      Discuss your background (e.g., where you grew up, where you went to school, and life experiences before becoming an educator).

2.      Describe your philosophy of education.

3.      Which philosophers most shaped your beliefs? How?

4.      What skills, characteristics, attitudes, etc., are most important for an effective educator to develop?

  1. How would you describe your “call” to be an educator?
  2. How did your religious views or worldview impact your views of education?


  1. Critical Issues (required)

1.      Identify and comment on the 3 most critical issues (e.g., social, legal, pedagogical) currently facing educators. How should schools work to resolve these issues?

  1. How have these issues been addressed by educators in the past?
  2. Describe any institutional plans to improve in a certain area or areas.
  3. What do you see as the most critical issue for education in the coming years?


  1. Effective Practices (required)

1.      Identify and briefly comment on 3 effective practices used by you personally which have enhanced your capabilities of accomplishing your institution’s stated mission and/or vision.

2.      What actions are you taking to help future educators become effective?

3.      What are common mistakes educators make?


Submit your Professional Interview Analysis by 11:59 p.m. (ET) on Sunday of Module/Week 6.

Week 2 Discussion -types of arguments discussed this week.

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Week 2 Discussion Hint
This document is so long because I address all of the types of arguments discussed this week.
Remember, you only have to give two examples (and explanations) for one type of argument.
Deductive arguments
Deductive arguments are all about how the ideas in the standard form argument are related to
each other in the statements making up the premises and the conclusion. The goal is to create an
argument such that if the reader believes the premises are true, then they absolutely must also
accept the conclusion is true. So, it’s not just about the ideas presented (the content of the
argument), it’s about the structure (or form) of the argument. All of the ideas in the conclusion
have to be explicitly stated in the premises and related to each other in a way that forces the
reader to accept the conclusion. There are specific structures of deductive arguments that do this,
and they are called valid forms.
Valid deductive argument forms
Below are the most common basic valid deductive forms. They are so common they’ve been
given names. I present them as templates for basic deductive arguments, and any more complex
deductive argument—what the text calls sorties—is simply a combination of these forms. For
each form, IF the premises are true (note I’m not saying they actually are true), then the
conclusion MUST also be true—that’s the definition of validity. (The truth of the premises is a
separate idea and deals with the soundness of the argument.) To create examples of these forms,
you would replace the information in brackets with ideas or concepts consistently (i.e., exactly
the same words) throughout the template. You should look at each one and make sure you
understand why they are valid.
A. Modus ponens:
P1. If [something is true], then [conclusion of the argument]
P2. [something is true]
C. Therefore, [conclusion of the argument]
B. Modus tollens:
P1. If [opposite of the conclusion of the argument], then [something is true]
P2. Not-[something is true]
C. Therefore, not-[opposite of the conclusion of the argument]
If you use information from this document in any of your posts, you are required to cite it
following APA requirements. You must also provide the following reference:
Munns, C. A. (2018, March 27). PHI103: Informal Logic, week 2 discussion hint [Class
handout]. Division of General Studies, Ashford University, San Diego, CA.
C. Disjunctive Syllogism:
P1. Either [something is true] or [conclusion of the argument]
P2. Not-[something is true]
C. Therefore, [conclusion of the argument]
D. Hypothetical Syllogism:
P1. If [something #1 is true], then [something #2 is true]
P2. If [something #2 is true], then [conclusion of the argument]
C. Therefore, if [something #1 is true], then [conclusion of the argument]
E. Categorical Syllogism
P1. All [something #1] are [something #2]
P2. All [something #2] are [something #3]
C. Therefore, all [something #1] are [something #3]
Examples of valid arguments
Because the forms above are necessarily valid, any information you use to replace the
information in brackets, as long as you’re consistent, will give you a valid argument regardless
of what those ideas are. Consider this slightly modified flat earth argument from my week 1
discussion hint post:
P1. If the earth is not flat, then the curvature of the earth would be visible in the distance.
P2. There is no curvature of the earth visible in the distance.
C. Therefore, the earth is flat.
The words in bold help us pick out the form of the argument. As you can see this is an example
of modus tollens (see the form above). The first part of premise 1 (the part following the word
‘if’—called the antecedent) and the conclusion express opposite ideas. The second part of the
first premise (the part following the word ‘then’—called the consequent because it’s a
consequence of the first part) is the opposite of the idea in premise two. So, you should be able to
recognize that this argument follows the form modus tollens, but why is it valid?
The first premise sets up a relationship between potential events or conditions (in fact, an if-then
statement is called a conditional statement). It doesn’t say that the earth is not flat, but it tells us
that if the “the earth is not flat” is true, the second part, “the curvature of the earth is not visible”
must also be true. Consider another example. If I say, “If it rains, then the grass will get wet,”
what I’m telling you is not that it actually is raining, but that grass gets wet when it rains. Notice
that doesn’t preclude the grass getting wet for other reasons (e.g., sprinklers).
To assess the validity of the argument we need to temporarily accept the truth of the premises
(i.e., pretend they are true). So, if premise 1 is true, then we know a consequence of the earth
being flat (i.e., “the curvature of the earth won’t be visible”) is also true. This is important
because premise 2 gives us a factual claim: “The curvature of is not visible,” which is the
opposite of the consequence of premise one. Since we’ve temporarily assumed the premises are
true, that means that if premise 2 is true, the antecedent in premise 1 cannot also be true. Thus,
the opposite of the first part of premise 1 (the antecedent) must be true, which gives us the
conclusion of the argument, “The earth is flat.” [Once we’ve determined the argument is valid,
then we would evaluate whether the premises are true. If they are, then the argument is sound,
and we have to accept the conclusion is true. If not, then the argument is unsound, and we reject
the conclusion.]
Here’s a bad (invalid) example of a deductive argument:
P1. If it is raining, then the grass is wet.
P2. The grass is wet.
C. Therefore, it is raining.
Since I’ve already told you this argument is invalid, you know it doesn’t follow any of the valid
forms above (go ahead and compare it to the forms above). See if you can figure out where the
problem with the form is (remember, it’s not about the ideas themselves, it’s about how they are
related to each other). You can post your thoughts on why it’s invalid as a reply to this post, and
I’ll comment on them. A deductive argument would also be considered “bad” if it’s valid, but
any of the premises are false. That argument would also be unsound, even if the premises happen
to be true.
Statistical syllogisms
Statistical arguments are very common, particularly in science and politics. If you want to be a
good critical thinker, it would be a good idea to gain a basic understanding of statistics and
statistical analysis by taking a dedicated course or two. Unfortunately, that’s beyond the scope of
this course. For now, you just need to understand the basics of arguments based on statistics. The
basic form for a statistical syllogism is:
P1. X% of [group #1] are [members of group #2].
P2. [individual] is an [group #1].
C. Therefore, [individual] is (probably/probably not) a [member of group #2].
Like all inductive arguments, what makes such an argument good or bad is how strong the
evidence is in support of the conclusion. Unlike the deductive arguments discussed above, the
premises of an inductive argument don’t guarantee the truth of the conclusion; they only make it
more or less likely to be true. For statistical syllogism the strength comes from how likely it is
the individual in premise two is going to be a member of group and whether the conclusion says
that individual is (or isn’t) part of that group. For that reason, statistical syllogisms—and all
inductive arguments—are said to be either strong or weak arguments.
Here’s a good (i.e., strong) statistical syllogism:
P1. 95% of Republicans are anti-Gun control.
P2. John is a Republican.
C. Therefore, John is (probably) anti-Gun control.
Even though this is an argument I made up, it is a strong argument because the higher the
percentage of the first group (Republicans) belong to the second group (Pro Life) the greater the
chance that the individual in question, John, will be a member of the second group based on his
membership in the first group. However, there is still 5% possibility that he is not a member of
the second group, so the premises, if true, do not guarantee the conclusion is true. That’s why it’s
better to say he is probably a member of the second group. If the conclusion said, “John is
probably not Pro Life,” then it would be a weak argument. (Note that if the percentage is 100%,
the argument becomes deductive, not inductive. Can you explain why?)
Here’s a bad (i.e., weak) statistical syllogism:
P1. 5% of Democrats are anti-Gun control.
P2. John is a Democrat.
C. Therefore, John is (probably) anti-Gun control.
Again, the statistics here are completely made up (don’t do that in your papers, but it’s okay for
the discussion), but it should be clear why this is a weak argument. Basing John’s membership in
the second group on only 5% of Democrats being in that group is not enough evidence. If the
conclusion said, “John is probably not anti-Gun control,” the argument would be much stronger.
I would recommend that if you give statistical arguments you include the words “probably” or
“probably not” (or some equivalent) in your conclusion. These words strengthen your argument
because you are including the possibility that the evidence might not fully support your claim—
you’re not overstating your position.
Also, you need to make sure you have gotten your statistics from credible and recent sources. For
example, in a recent section of PHI208 Ethics and Moral Reasoning, a student submitted a paper
on sexual harassment in the workplace. The statistics supported her argument, but they were
from a government published in 2000. While that may seem recent, with changes in social
attitudes toward sexual harassment and the recent #metoo movement, there is likely to have been
an increase in reported incidents over the past 18 years, so more current statistics would give a
better picture of how things are in the workplace.
Arguments from analogy
Like statistical arguments, arguments from analogies are common. We often make connections
and comparisons between things (that’s an analogy—thing A is like thing B in qualities x and y)
and then extend that comparison to other aspects of those things (B must also be like A by
having quality z). The form for an argument from analogy is:
P1. [Unfamiliar case] is similar to [Familiar case] because they both have [qualities x,
and y].
P2. [Familiar case] has [quality z].
C. Therefore, [Unfamiliar case] probably also has [quality z].
The key to a good (i.e., strong) argument from analogy is to show that the things being compared
are actually alike in ways that are relevant to the conclusion. These arguments are often
considered inductive arguments because they go beyond what we know (the relevant similarities
between the object) and give a conclusion that is probably (depending on the strength of the
comparison), but not necessarily, true.
Consider this strong argument from analogy:
P1. Eastern long-beaked echidnas are similar to mammals because they have hair and are
P2. Mammals give birth to live offspring.
C. Therefore, Eastern long-beaked echidnas probably also give birth to live offspring.
This argument is strong because, as you probably learned in elementary school, some
characteristics used to identify mammals are having hair, being warm-blooded, and giving birth
to live offspring. So, if an animal has several of these characteristics, it is likely to have others
and the more it has the more likely it is to have the others. We know, however, that there are
exceptions. Not all mammals have hair or give birth to live young, and non-mammals may have
some of the same characteristics. In fact, the Eastern long-beaked echidna is a mammal, but it—
like the platypus—lays eggs (National Geographic, 2010). If you were the first to discover the
Eastern long-beaked echidnas and observed that it had many mammal qualities, you would be
justified in concluding that it also gave live birth until you discovered otherwise. This illustrates
how an argument from analogy (or any inductive argument for that matter) can be strong, but it
can still have a false conclusion.
Here’s an example of a weak argument from analogy:
P1. Apples are similar to oranges because they are both roundish and grow on trees.
P2. Oranges are citrus fruits.
C. Therefore, apples are probably also citrus fruit.
This is a weak argument from analogy because being roundish and growing on trees aren’t
relevant (i.e., they aren’t essential qualities) to a fruit being a citrus fruit (Swain, 2015). Although
many citrus fruits are roundish and most grow on trees, that’s not what makes them citrus, so
having those qualities shouldn’t be used to determine what other fruits are citrus.
When evaluating arguments from analogy, you should focus on how similar (or different) the
things being compared are. It’s easy to say that more similarities they have the stronger the
argument, but you need to be able to establish that the similarities are relevant to the quality or
feature included in the conclusion. In the two examples above, it’s not only that the things being
compared are alike in the ways stated; it’s just how relevant the identified similarities are to the
Appeals to authority
The key to appeal to authority being strong or weak is the relevance of the authority to the
conclusion. The basic form for appeal to authority is:
P1. [Person A] said that [some statement] is true.
P2. [Person A] is an authority on the subject.
C. Therefore, [some statement] is true.
The strength of the argument is based on premise 2, so you MUST explain the type of authority
the person is (see the examples below). In explaining and supporting an appeal to authority
argument, you need to establish that premise 2 is true—that the person is actually a relevant
authority on the topic being discussed. You would also need to explain the reason behind why
the expert or authority made the claim they did—it’s not enough just to say the authority said it.
A strong appeal to authority argument shows that not only the authority made the claim, but also
that the person is a relevant authority. An example of a strong argument from authority is:
P1. Stephen Hawking said that black holes emit radiation.
P2. Hawking was the leading cosmologist in the world.
C. Therefore, black holes emit radiation.
As an appeal to authority argument, this is strong. As the leading cosmologist (someone who
studies the physical nature of the universe), Hawking developed many theories about the
universe and particularly black holes and then proved them mathematically. Although the
radiation he predicted, now known as “Hawking radiation,” has not yet been observed, most
physicists accept his arguments for its existence because (simplified version) the mathematics
works and it helps explain observed phenomena better than other theories (Wall, 2018).
Remember, this is an inductive argument, so it doesn’t intend to prove the conclusion beyond
any doubt at all and it’s still possible for the conclusion to be false—Hawking could be proven
wrong sometime in the future. However, right now, based on everything we know and
Hawking’s work, his theories are the best we have, so based on his authority we should accept
the existence of Hawking radiation.
Here is an example of a weak argument from authority (please read the explanation before you
react emotionally):
P1. The Bible says that the Earth is flat.
P2. The Bible is the word of God.
C. Therefore, the Earth is flat.
The problem with this argument may be more subtle than some of the other examples I’ve
provided, depending on your personal religious beliefs. Christian “flat earthers” often cite
specific Bible verses to support their beliefs (e.g., Job 9:8, Isaiah 44:24, Ezekiel 1:26,
Ecclesiastes 1:5, Genesis 1:1-8, etc.—see Stallings, n.d.). When they do, they are giving an
appeal to authority argument. The authority being appealed to is the Christian God (who, if he
exists, would be the ultimate authority as an omniscient being). That’s what premise 2 is saying;
if the Bible is the word of God and God is the authority, then we should believe God said. The
problem is getting people to accept the God of the Bible as the authority. Only people who
already believe in Christianity will accept the Christian God as an authority and the Bible as true.
Even among that group, most Christians in the U.S., for example, don’t take the Bible as literal
truth (Cole, 2017). They interpret it as a metaphor, so they’d be unlikely to accept this argument.
Additionally, while Christians are a large group and may be the majority religion in the U.S.,
they are less than a third of the world population (Pew Research, 2012). That means this
argument is weak because only a very few people are likely to accept the authority being
appealed to in support of the conclusion.
Almost all religious-based arguments can be reduced to or include a weak appeal to authority in
this way. In general, unless you know your audience shares your religious beliefs, it is usually
best to avoid basing arguments on those beliefs. Anyone who doesn’t already agree with your
beliefs will likely automatically reject any premise based on a specific religion. It’s better to start
with premises that everyone is likely to accept or at least to consider as possibly true.
Inductive generalizations
Inductive generalizations are probably the most common form of inductive arguments. The basic
form for inductive generalizations stated in the text is:
P1. X% of observed Fs are Gs.
C. Therefore, X% of all Fs are Gs.
Even though this form lists statistics, many arguments of this type are more vague and use the
word “many” rather than actual percentages and conclude with a statement about “all” of the
things being discussed (you should be able to see how that weakens the argument). As with the
other inductive arguments above, the strength of the argument relies on the amount and
relevance of the evidence.
An example of a strong inductive generalization is:
P1. 95% of all observed swans have been white.
C. Therefore, 95% of all swans are white.
This is an inductive argument because it starts with a factual claim about a large portion of a
group (i.e., the sample) and draws a conclusion about all members of the group (i.e., the
population). Scientific arguments take this form because we don’t observe all possible instances
(e.g., every possible case of cancer), but we extend the observations we do make to conclusions
about cases we haven’t observed. The possibility of the observations not applying to all cases is
why scientists say things like, “The findings suggest that drug X reduces the spread of cancer”
rather than claiming drug X will always reduce the spread of cancer.
Weak inductive generalizations are based on a small number of observations. These are the basis
of most stereotypes. For stereotypes, they are not wrong because no member of the group
exhibits those behaviors; they are wrong because the attribution of the behavior to the entire
group is based on a small number of observations. Consider this weak inductive inference:
P1. My philosophy professor was a hard grader.
C. Therefore, all philosophy professors are hard graders.
Basing a claim about every single philosophy professor on your experience of one philosophy
professor isn’t anywhere near strong enough. Even if you had taken 5 philosophy classes, and
they were all hard graders, that wouldn’t be enough. Hopefully, you can see how this example
extends to any common stereotype about a group.
Cone, A. (2017, May 16). Gallup: Record low 24% believe Bible is literal word of God. United
Press International. Retrieved from
National Geographic. (2010, December 6). Pictures: 14 rarest and weirdest mammal species
named. National Geographic. Retrieved from
Pew Research Center. (2012, December 18). The global religious landscape. Pew Research
Center: Religion & Public Life. Retrieved from

The Global Religious Landscape

Stallings, R. (n.d.). The Biblical flat earth: The teaching from scripture. Retrieved from
Swain, J. (2015, October 25). Ask Dr. Knowledge: What is a citrus? The Boston Globe.
Retrieved from
Wall, M. (2018, March 15). How Stephen Hawking transformed our understanding of black
holes. Retrieved from

Evaluate the role consumer behavior plays in marketing.

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  • Evaluate the role consumer behavior plays in marketing.
  • Analyze the impact an individual’s perception, personality and attitude have on consumer behavior.
  • Analyze the impact that external environmental factors and culture have on consumer behavior.
  • Examine the decision-making process and its influence on consumer behavior.
  • Assess company-controlled factors and policies that sway consumer actions.
  • Design influential marketing strategy based on consumer behavior insights.


After working in the industry for a few years, you have decided to make the leap and become an independent consultant. You have landed your first client, Plush and Easy Lawn Furniture, a manufacturer of lawn furniture. You conducted research on the industry and noted market share, trends, industry statistics and overall background information to be best prepared for your new client’s needs. Plush and Easy Lawn Furniture would like you to help them achieve their marketing goals.

Geoffrey Holder, the Director of Marketing, is looking for your expertise in helping Plush and Easy Lawn Furniture create a positive image for a new product line. He is also interested in what aspects of consumer behavior would help the salesforce increase sales. He would like to present your ideas at his next marketing meeting.

Plush and Easy Lawn Furniture is introducing a new line of outdoor furniture. The furniture will be marketed to upscale, suburban households with 3-4 family members. The price varies from $500-$1200. Geoffrey asks you to review the line and suggest ideas to increase its acceptance in the marketplace based on your consulting expertise. You remember reading about the importance of creating favorable brand experiences and strategies to increase the rate of adoption of a new line.

Additionally, Plush and Easy Lawn Furniture plans to introduce the new line of outdoor furniture to employees at a company-wide meeting to drive interest and excitement in the product. Geoffrey asks your assistance with ideas they can implement to enhance their reputation as a socially minded firm. Because Geoffrey’s experience in creating presentations is limited, he has asked you to provide your recommendations in a presentation that he can use as the basis for his own presentation. As part of your presentation, include ways to create awareness, interest and sales of the new line of outdoor furniture.


In an executive summary to Geoffrey Holder, the Director of Marketing, include the following information he will use to present to his marketing team.

  • Explain the importance of consumer behavior research and how it will help Plush and Easy Lawn Furniture achieve its marketing goals.
  • Include trends impacting the growth of the outdoor furniture market and the impact on Plush and Easy Lawn Furniture.
  • Include an example of a favorable brand experience from a successful firm. Recommend one way Plush and Easy Lawn Furniture can create a meaningful brand experience. Your recommendation must be specific.
  • Explain how family members and neighbors influence purchase decisions for lawn furniture. Incorporate your thoughts into the areas social factors, subculture and social class.
  • Explain the concept of cognitive dissonance and how Plush and Easy can reduce post purchase conflict. Recommended a policy and explain how it reduces cognitive dissonance.

It is time for the company-wide meeting. Prepare a presentation to introduce the new line of lawn furniture. Geoffrey Holder can incorporate the following information into his presentation:

  • Prepare an overview of the lawn and furniture market.
  • Describe the adoption process and explain what Plush and Easy Lawn Furniture can do during each of the five stages to enhance the success of its new line of outdoor furniture.
  • Explain two product characteristics that help increase the rate of adopting a new product among consumers. Include characteristics with examples of what Plush and Easy Lawn Furniture can do to increase the rate of adoption.
  • Introduce an example of a policy the firm can adopt which is in line with its desired reputation for social responsibility, environment friendliness, or responsiveness to the consumer.
  • Provide a guerilla marketing program for Plush and Easy with details on how the program increases awareness, interest, and sales.

competitive Advantage and the Value Chain Assignment help

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competitive Advantage and the Value Chain:

competitive Advantage and the Value Chain:

Describe an example of a company or organization, not discussed previously, where the focus on customer delight has a direct and long-term impact on the brand’s competitive advantage. Why did you choose this example?


Your reflective Journal article should consist of a minimum of three paragraphs, with at least four to five sentences per paragraph. The Journal must be concise, well-written, and demonstrate a thorough understanding of the question asked. This Journal exercise provides you the opportunity to demonstrate your knowledge of this unit’s learning.

For this Discussion, you will examine the issues of both capital punishment and gun control in the United States.

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The U.S. criminal justice system has been forced to deal with increased demands for less governmental social control and an inability to continue to finance the punishments enacted over the last 40 years. The interesting criminal justice paradox is that conservatives who argue for less governmental oversight of the private sector seek greater levels of control for those who they deem have violated the social trust and committed any one of the eight index offenses. Liberals argue for the reverse. Perhaps no other issues strike more emotion than the implementation of the death penalty and gun control.

For this Discussion, you will examine the issues of both capital punishment and gun control in the United States. The Instructor will split the class into two groups.

Post by Day 3: Group A will debate capital punishment. Group B will debate gun control.

Group A: Explain whether the perception of the death penalty is changing. Support your argument.

Group B: Explain whether or not gun control is actually possible. Support your argument.

Respond by Day 5: You must engage in the online group discussion a minimum of three times, which includes a response to two of your colleagues.

Please keep the discussion civil!

Arguments should be based in factual research.

Evaluate the role digital marketing plays in overall marketing strategy.

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Evaluate the role digital marketing plays in overall marketing strategy.

Scenario Information

Your small marketing consulting firm was recently hired by Costa’s Customs. Costa’s Customs is a clothing retail company considering a complete rebranding, as their current reputation is dated and no longer appealing to desired market segments. In the past, Costa’s Customs experimented with digital marketing initiatives but the campaign had been poorly thought out and poorly implemented. The previous campaign had very little engagement and was a failure that turned management off from online marketing channels completely. Costa’s Customs’ current marketing strategy ignores all forms of digital marketing. They’ve come to your company for advice and recommendations for improving their marketing efforts. Your administrator has put together some preliminary research on Costa’s Customs’ background for you to look over. Click on the link below and read through it in order to familiarize yourself with the business.

Costa’s Customs’ Company Profile


You realize that Costa’s Customs’ current strategy of ignoring digital marketing is a huge disadvantage in today’s business environment and set your sights on convincing management to shift their marketing budget towards digital channels. Your first meeting with the higher ups is coming up, and you feel that this would be the perfect opportunity to give a presentation making the case for a strategy shift to digital marketing channels.

The presentation should contain a detailed notes section for Costa’s Customs’ management, tailor your choices to Costa’s Customs’ needs/situation, and complete the following below:

  • Detail potential benefits of digital marketing and why it’s a good fit for Costa’s Customs’ brand.
    • Support your opinion with observations from the company profile.
    • Two slides minimum.
  • Select two digital marketing channels that you think best fit the case company and detail their potential impact.
    • Provide an overview of the strengths and weaknesses of each channel choice.
    • Support each channel choice with observations from the company profile.
    • Two slides minimum.
  • Provide initial thoughts on possible ways to implement content marketing within each of your two chosen channels.
    • Address how Costa’s Customs could use each channel to implement content marketing.
    • Highlight how content marketing could be used to connect the two channels to each other.
    • Two slides minimum.
  • Select a digital communication model that you think best fits Costa’s Customs’ needs and your channel choices.
    • Provide an overview of the strengths and weaknesses of this model and explain how it fits with both channel choices.
    • One slide minimum.

Case Study: MBA Schools in Asia-Pacific

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 Case Study: MBA Schools in Asia-Pacific

Case Study: MBA Schools in Asia-Pacific


The pursuit of a higher education degree in business is now international. A survey shows more and more Asians choose the master of business administration (MBA) degree route to corporate success. As a result, the number of applicants for MBA courses at Asia-Pacific schools continues to increase.


Across the region, thousands of Asians show an increasing willingness to temporarily shelve their careers and spend two years in pursuit of a theoretical business qualification. Courses in these schools are notoriously tough and include statistics, economics, banking, marketing, behavioral sciences, labor relations, decision making, strategic thinking, business law, and more.


After your MBA, you get a job at Bloomberg in its media division, Bloomberg Business. Your division publishes reviews and rankings for business schools in the US and internationally. Because of your strong analytical education from University of Phoenix, your boss assigns you to work on preparing an analysis for data gathered for leading business schools in the Asia-Pacific. The data set in the Excel® file shows some of the characteristics of the leading Asia-Pacific business schools.