Devry PHIL447 final exam

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Question 1.1.(TCO 1) What makes critical thinkingcritical?(Points : 4)

It requires careful and deliberate work
It is an analytic process
It requires coming up with claims, true or otherwise
It is the application of common sense to complex problems
It offers guidance about critiquing thinking

Question 2.2.(TCO 1, 2, 4) What is the first order of business when it comes to thinking critically about an issue?(Points : 4)

Formulating a proposal
Discovering whether the question is objective
Determining exactly what the issueis
Determining whether a fallacy is involved
Realizing that all claims are equally valid

Question 3.3.(TCOs 1, 2, 3) What activity is being attempted when making an argument?(Points : 4)

Arguments attempt to persuade those who listen or read them.
Arguments seek to win adherents to a position.
Arguments seek to refute the positions of other people.
Arguments attempt to support or prove conclusions.
Arguments attempt to explain difficult concepts.

Question 4.4.(TCOs 2, 3) For inductive arguments, how do we measure their quality as stronger or weaker?(Points : 4)

Based on how much support their premises provide for the conclusion
Based on requiring little translation into syllogistic form
Based on their appearing in a standard form
Based on the clear definition of critical words
Based on the syllogism that can be formed from them

Question 5.5.(TCO 1, 2) The mode of persuasion that Aristotle defined aspathosrefers to arguments based on what?(Points : 4)

Whether a decision is ethical
Being alert to influences in one’s thinking
The speaker’s personal attributes
The audience’s emotions
Using information and reasoning

Question 6.6.(TCO 6) What is a likely reason for having trouble identifying a conclusion in what you hear or read?(Points : 4)

There are too many rhetorical claims
There is not enough background information
The premise introduces a consideration that runs counter to common sense
The conventions of argument are not being followed
It could be that the passage is not an argument at all

Question 7.7.(TCOs 6, 7, 8, 9) Which of the five items below is usuallyNOTa part of a good argumentative essay?
(Points : 4)

A statement of one’s position on the issue
Arguments that support one’s position on the issue
Rebuttals of arguments that support contrary positions on the issue
An author’s claim to speak with respected expertise based on qualifications or experience
A statement of the issue

Question 8.8.(TCOs 6, 8, 9) What is grouping ambiguity?(Points : 4)

When one arbitrarily classifies people as a group for unclear purposes
When people share an affinity that is not obvious
When it is not clear whether a word is being used to refer to a group or to the individuals within a group
When an author or speaker seeks a group to blame as a scapegoat
When labeling classifications of people with epithets

Question 9.9.(TCOs 2, 6, 7, 8) Which of the following would suggest a lack of credibility in a claim?(Points : 4)

When it is accompanied by other claims that have credibility
The claim conflicts with what we have observed
When the person presenting the claim has something to gain by our believing it
When it brings something we have not learned before
When it comes from an interested party

Question 10.10.(TCOs 1, 6, 7, 9) What is the purpose of the rhetorical device called a euphemism?(Points : 4)

To replace ambiguous terms with clearer ones
To hide the agenda of interested parties
To replace another term with a neutral or positive expression instead of one with negative associations
To replace vague terms with others that communicate more information
To replace other expressions with new ones that are expected to be more acceptable

Question 11.11.(TCOs 1, 7) What is the purpose of the rhetorical device called hyperbole?(Points : 4)

Synonym for euphemism
To bring humor to a difficult analysis
Exaggerating for effect
Sarcastic claim
Based on unwarranted assumptions

Question 12.12.(TCOs 1, 2) What is the personalad hominemfallacy?(Points : 4)

Attacking an argument based on the personal shortcomings of the one making the argument
The status given to an argument based on the fame and good reputation of the originating person
Attacking an argument based on the confusion of what the author has presented before
Attacking an argument because of who presented it
Attributing added value to an argument based on who has presented it

Question 13.13.(TCOs 6, 7, 8) To the overall topic of burden of proof, what is the purpose of the rule called affirmative/negative plausibility?(Points : 4)

Other things being equal, the burden of proof falls automatically on those supporting it affirmatively.
Other things being equal, the burden of proof is shared by all parties that have a shared interest in the outcome.
Other things being equal, the burden of proof rests with the parties with the most to lose.
Other things being equal, the burden of proof rests with neither party automatically.
Other things being equal, the first decision must be who must bear the burden of proof.

Question 14.14.(TCOs 1, 2) What is a standard-form categorical claim?(Points : 4)

The claim that the burden of proof must be shared because the evidence is too weak and indirect.
A claim based on the primary documents of early philosophers.
A claim that strictly follows Aristotle’s method.
A claim that relies upon the orderly processes of biology.
A claim that results from putting names or descriptions of classes into one of the AEIO forms.

Question 15.15.(TCOs 3, 4) What is the purpose of a Venn Diagram?(Points : 4)

To give a graphic illustration of standard-form claims
To show how nouns and noun phrases relate
To demonstrate the orderly processes of biology
To show the primary characteristics of things
To illustrate the classes of things

Question 16.16.(TCOs 3, 4, 8, 9) What circumstances are necessary for two claims to be equivalent?(Points : 4)

They would be true in all and exactly the same circumstances.
They match perfectly in form but address differing topics.
They match but one of the issues cannot be affirmed as true.
They both give a graphic illustration of standard-form claims.
They express differing relations within the same class or category.

Question 17.17.(TCOs 2, 3, 4) Logical relationships between corresponding claims of standard-form categorical logic are illustrated in the graphic square of opposition. What is known about two claims when they are called contradictory claims?(Points : 4)

They never have the same truth values.
One is always false in the set.
They always have the same truth values.
They never share the same subject term.
One is always true in the set.

Question 18.18.(TCOs 2, 3, 4) How do we work the categorical operation called obversion?(Points : 4)

By changing the claims from being in the same class to being outside the class
By limiting the scope of terms used to those within a class
By changing a claim from positive to negative, or vice versa
By changing one claim to referring outside of a class but leaving the other one inside the class
By making an argument invalid in form

Question 19.19.(TCOs 2, 5) What is the purpose of studying a sample?(Points : 4)

To establish logical connections among a group of people
To observe new and previously unseen factors in a population of people
To reduce a study to a manageable size
For reasons of economy of both effort and cost
To generalize your findings from a sample to the whole set from which the sample is taken

Question 20.20.(TCOs 2, 5) In studying a sample, what is meant by the term sampling frame?(Points : 4)

A precise definition of the population and the attribute in which one is interested
The diversity of the whole population that is being studied
Some part of the population intentionally left out of the target population
Some biasing factor excluded from the target population
The size of the sample itself

Question 21.21.(TCOs 1, 5, 8, 9) What is the inductive “fallacy of anecdotal evidence”?(Points : 4)

A version of hasty generalizing where the sample is just a story
Bypassing standard questions to ask for opinions
Telling personal experiences
Bypassing standard questioning to accept data that does not match the possible answers
Asking hypothetical questions of “what if…”

Question 22.22.(TCOs 1, 2) What is an analogue?(Points : 4)

A version of hasty generalizing where the sample is just a story
The idea that one can understand predictability and overcome its randomness
Telling personal experiences
The idea that sequences of occurrences can be predicted
A thing that has similar attributes to another thing

Question 23.23.(TCOs 1, 2, 3) What is the purpose of explanations?(Points : 4)

Describing natural phenomena
Elucidating something in one way or another
Providing ethical justifications for actions
Providing knowledge
Providing reasons to believe claims

Question 24.24.(TCOs 2, 6) The deontological ethics of Immanuel Kant define moral imperatives to prescribe actions not for the sake of some result but simply because(Points : 4)

those actions are our moral duty.
those actions are dictated by conscience.
those actions will produce the greatest happiness.
those actions will promote the freedom of other people.
those actions will benefit everyone concerned.

Question 25.25.(TCOs 1, 6) “If someone appears to be violating the consistency principle, then the burden of proof is on that person to show he or she is in fact not violating the principle.” Why is this principle necessary?(Points : 4)

Moral arguments need to be specific.
It is how one deduces the right thing to do.
Out of fairness, separate moral cases, if similar, must be given similar treatment.
Moral explanations need to show the reasons for the results.
All moral claims are relative.

Question 1.1.(TCOs 3, 6, 7, 9) Here is a passage that contains a rhetorical fallacy.
Name that fallacy, and in a paragraph, explain why the argument is irrelevant to the point at issue. Here is your example for this question:
An editorial says, “Taxes have jumped by more than 30% in just two years! The governor is working for a balanced state budget, but it’ll be on the backs of us taxpayers, the people who have the very least to spend! It seems pretty clear that these increased taxes are undermining the social structure in this state. Anybody who isn’t angry about this just doesn’t understand the situation and hasn’t figured out just how miserable they are.”(Points : 15)

 

Question 2.2.(TCOs 5, 8) In the example below, identify the presumed cause and the presumed effect. Does the example contain or imply a causal claim, a hypothesis, or an explanation that cannot be tested?
If it does fall into one of those categories, tell whether the problem is due to vagueness, circularity, or some other problem of language.
Also tell whether there might be some way to test the situation if it is possible at all.
Here is your example:
This part of the coastline is subject to mudslides because there is a lack of mature vegetation growing on it.(Points : 15)

 

Question 3.3.(TCOs 2, 4) Explain in what way the thinking of the following statement is wrong or defective. Give reasons for your judgment.
I believe that violent video games contribute to sexual violence and other forms of antisocial behavior. No one has ever shown that it doesn’t.(Points : 10)
Question 4.4.(TCOs 3, 9) Can a person belong to more than one culture at the same time? If so, does this create any logical difficulty for moral relativists?(Points : 10)

 

Question 5.5.(TCOs 6, 7, 9) Here is a short essay about an investigation.
There are also four questions/tasks; write a paragraph to answer each one of them.
1. Identify the causal hypothesis at issue.
2. Identify what kind of investigation it is.
3. There are control and experimental groups. State the difference in effect (or cause) between the control and experimental groups.
4. State the conclusion that you think is warranted by the report.
Research at the University of Pennsylvania and the Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia indicates that children who sleep in a dimly lighted room until age two may be up to five times more likely to develop myopia (nearsightedness) when they grow up.
The researchers asked the parents of children who had been patients at the researchers’ eye clinic to recall the lighting conditions in the children’s bedroom from birth to age two.
Of a total of 172 children who slept in darkness, 10% were nearsighted. Of a total of 232 who slept with a night light, 34% were nearsighted. Of a total of 75 who slept with a lamp on, 55% were nearsighted.
The lead ophthalmologist, Dr. Graham, E. Quinn, said that “just as the body needs to rest, this suggests that the eyes need a period of darkness.”(Points : 30)

 

Question 6.6.(TCOs 3, 4, 6) Read this passage below. When you have done so, answer these three questions, writing a paragraph for each question.
Your three questions are:
1. What issue is the author addressing?
2. If the author is supporting a position with an argument, restate the argument in your own words.
3. What rhetorical devices does the author employ in this text?

The Passage:
“Another quality that makes [Texas Republican and former Congressman] Tom DeLay an un-Texas politician is that he’s mean. By and large, Texas pols are an agreeable set of less-than-perfect humans and quite often well-intentioned. As Carl Parker of Port Arthur used to observe, if you took all the fools out of the [legislature], it would not be a representative body any longer. The old sense of collegiality was strong, and vindictive behavior punishing pols for partisan reasons was simply not done. But those are Tom DeLay’s specialties, his trademarks. The Hammer is not only genuinely feared in Washington, he is, I’m sorry to say, hated.”
-excerpt from a column by Molly Ivins,Ft. Worth Star-Telegram(Points : 30)

 

Question 7.7.(TCOs 7, 8) Read this passage below. When you have done so, answer the question in at least one full paragraph, giving specific reasons.

The Passage:
Elizabeth has a paper due tomorrow morning. She has tried to write something for hours, but has no ideas for a good paper. Elizabeth remembers that her sorority sister, Deb, said that Elizabeth could use any of Deb’s papers in their sorority house computer. Elizabeth remembers that Deb wrote a paper on the very same topic the previous semester. Elizabeth decides to get Deb’s paper off the sorority house computer and leave a note telling Deb what she has done. Elizabeth feels confident that she has Deb’s permission to do this. Is Elizabeth guilty of plagiarizing?(Points : 20)
a

Question 8.8.(TCOs 6, 7, 9) Read this passage below. When you have done so, answer these three questions, writing a paragraph for each question.
Your three questions are as follows.
1. What premises is the author using?
2. What conclusions does the author come to?
3. Are the conclusions justified?
Either one thinks that there is no reason for believing any political doctrine or one sees some reason, however shaky, for the commitment of politics. If a person believes that political doctrines are void of content, that person will be quite content to see political debates go on, but won’t expect anything useful to come from them. If we consider the other case that there is a patriotic justification for a political belief, then what? If the belief is that a specific political position is true, then one ought to be intolerant of all other political beliefs, since each political position must be held to be false relative to the belief one has. And since each political position holds out the promise of reward for any probability of its fixing social problems, however small, that makes it seem rational to choose it over its alternatives. The trouble, of course, is that the people who have other political doctrines may hold theirs just as strongly, making strength of belief itself invalid as a way to determine the rightness of a political position.(Points : 20)

 

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